Thursday, May 21, 2020
Broadly defined in our own time as the art of effective communication, the rhetoric studied in ancient Greece and Rome (from roughly the fifth century B.C. to the early Middle Ages) was primarily intended to help citizens plead their claims in court. Though the early teachers of rhetoric, known as Sophists, were criticized by Plato and other philosophers, the study of rhetoric soon became the cornerstone of classical education. Modern theories of oral and written communication remain heavily influenced by the basic rhetorical principles introduced in ancient Greece by Isocrates and Aristotle, and in Rome by Cicero and Quintilian. Here, well briefly introduce these key figures and identify some of their central ideas. Rhetoric in Ancient Greece The English word rhetoric is derived from Greek rhetorike, which apparently came into use in the circle of Socrates in the fifth century and first appears in Platos dialogue Gorgias, probably written about 385 B.C. . . .. Rhetorike in Greek specifically denotes the civic art of public speaking as it developed in deliberative assemblies, law courts, and other formal occasions under constitutional government in the Greek cities, especially the Athenian democracy. As such, it is a cultural subset of a more general concept of the power of words and their potential to affect a situation in which they are used or received.(George A. Kennedy, A New History of Classical Rhetoric, 1994) Plato (c.428-c.348 B.C.): Flattery and Cookery A pupil (or at least an associate) of the great Athenian philosopher Socrates, Plato expressed his disdain for false rhetoric in Gorgias, an early work. In a much later work, Phaedrus, he developed a philosophical rhetoric, one that called for studying the souls of human beings to discover truth. [Rhetoric] seems to me then . . . to be a pursuit that is not a matter of art, but showing a shrewd, gallant spirit which has a natural bent for clever dealing with mankind, and I sum up its substance in the name flattery. . . . Well now, you have heard what I state rhetoric to be--the counterpart of cookery in the soul, acting here as that does on the body. (Plato, Gorgias, c. 385 B.C., translated by W.R.M. Lamb) Since the function of oratory is in fact to influence menÃ¢â¬â¢s souls, the intending orator must know what types of soul there are. Now these are of a determinate number, and their variety results in a variety of individuals. To the types of soul thus discriminated there corresponds a determinate number of types of discourse. Hence a certain type of hearer will be easy to persuade by a certain type of speech to take such and such action for such and such reason, while another type will be hard to persuade. All this the orator must fully understand, and next he must watch it actually occurring, exemplified in menÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct, and must cultivate a keen perception in following it, if he is going to get any advantage out of the previous instruction that he was given in the school. (Plato, Phaedrus, c. 370 B.C., translated by R. Hackforth) Isocrates (436-338 B.C.): With Love of Wisdom and Honor A contemporary of Plato and founder of the first school of rhetoric in Athens, Isocrates viewed rhetoric as a powerful tool for investigating practical problems. When anyone elects to speak or write discourses which are worthy of praise and honor, it is not conceivable that such a person will support causes which are unjust or petty or devoted to private quarrels, and not rather those which are great and honorable, devoted to the welfare of humanity and the common good. It follows, then, that the power to speak well and think right will reward the person who approaches the art of discourse with love of wisdom and love of honor. (Isocrates, Antidosis, 353 B.C., translated by George Norlin) Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): The Available Means of Persuasion Platos most famous student, Aristotle, was the first to develop a complete theory of rhetoric. In his lecture notes (known to us as the Rhetoric), Aristotle developed principles of argumentation that remain extremely influential today. As W.D. Ross observed in his introduction to The Works of Aristotle (1939), The Rhetoric may seem at first sight to be a curious jumble of literary criticism with second-rate logic, ethics, politics, and jurisprudence, mixed by the cunning of one who well knows how the weaknesses of the human heart are to be played upon. In understanding the book it is essential to bear in mind its purely practical purpose. It is not a theoretical work on any of these subjects; it is a manual for the speaker . . .. Much of what [Aristotle] says applies only to the conditions of Greek society, but very much is permanently true. Let rhetoric [be defined as] an ability, in each [particular] case, to see the available means of persuasion. This is the function of no other art; for each of the others is instructive and persuasive about its own subject. (Aristotle, On Rhetoric, late 4th century B.C.; translated by George A. Kennedy, 1991) Cicero (106-43 B.C.): To Prove, to Please, and to Persuade A member of the Roman Senate, Cicero was the most influential practitioner and theorist of ancient rhetoric who ever lived. InÃ De OratoreÃ (Orator), Cicero examined the qualities of what he perceived to be the idealÃ orator. There is a scientific system of politics which includes many important departments. One of these departments--a large and important one--is eloquence based on the rules of art, which they call rhetoric. For I do not agree with those who think that political science has no need for eloquence, and I violently disagree with those who think that it is wholly comprehended in the power and skill of the rhetorician. Therefore we will classify oratorical ability as a part of political science. The function of eloquence seems to be to speak in a manner suited to persuade an audience, the end is to persuade by speech. (Marcus Tullius Cicero,Ã De Inventione, 55 B.C., translated by H. M. Hubbell) The man of eloquence whom we seek, following the suggestion of Antonius, will be one who is able to speak in court or in deliberative bodies so as to prove, to please, and to sway or persuade. To prove is the first necessity, to please isÃ charm, to sway is victory; for it is the one thing of all that avails most in winning verdicts. For these three functions of theÃ oratorÃ there are three styles: the plain style for proof, the middle style for pleasure, the vigorous style for persuasion; and in this last is summed up the entire virtue of the orator. Now the man who controls and combines these three varied styles needs rare judgment and great endowment; for he will decide what is needed at any point, and will be able to speak in any way which the case requires. For, after all, the foundation of eloquence, as of everything else, is wisdom. In an oration, as in life, nothing is harder than to determine what is appropriate. (Marcus Tullius Cicero,Ã De Oratore, 46 B.C., translat ed by H.M. Hubbell) Quintilian (c.35-c.100): The Good Man Speaking Well A great Roman rhetorician, Quintilians reputation rests onÃ Institutio OratoriaÃ (Institutes of Oratory), a compendium of the best of ancient rhetorical theory. For my part, I have undertaken the task of molding the ideal orator, and as my first desire is that he should be a good man, I will return to those who have sounder opinions on the subject. . . . The definition which best suits its real character is that which makes rhetoric theÃ science of speaking well. For this definition includes all the virtues of oratory and the character of the orator as well, since no man can speak well who is not good himself. (Quintilian,Ã Institutio Oratoria, 95, translated by H. E. Butler) Saint Augustine of Hippo (354-430): The Aim of Eloquence As described in his autobiography (The Confessions), Augustine was a student of law and for ten years a teacher of rhetoric in North Africa before taking up study with Ambrose, the bishop of Milan and an eloquent orator. In Book IV ofÃ On Christian Doctrine, Augustine justifies the use of rhetoric to spread the doctrine of Christianity. After all, the universal task of eloquence, in whichever of these three styles, is to speak in a way that is geared to persuasion. The aim, what you intend, is to persuade by speaking. In any of these three styles, indeed, the eloquent man speaks in a way that is geared to persuasion, but if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually persuade, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t achieve the aim of eloquence.(St. Augustine,Ã De Doctrina Christiana, 427, translated by Edmund Hill) Postscript on Classical Rhetoric: I Say The wordÃ rhetoricÃ can be traced back ultimately to the simple assertion I say (eiroÃ in Greek). Almost anything related to the act of saying something to someone--in speech or in writing--can conceivably fall within the domain of rhetoric as a field of study. (Richard E. Young, Alton L. Becker, and Kenneth L. Pike,Ã Rhetoric: Discovery and Change, 1970)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Communication is the most important factor for young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and social development. Humans have the unique skills of language and speech to enable the sharing of information, knowledge and feelings with others. Early childhood educators have an important job to nurture and support the development of communication in children. Communication skills are required in order to deliver the right message and convey it properly to the child. These involve body languages and facial expression. Without this, an educator loses the connection with a young child since one appears to be cold. As an example, when one smiles while delivering the message, the child will be more interested with what you have to offer in contrast to a sternÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Play involves participation by the children as well the educator. It is essential for the early childhood educator to be able to create a nurturing environment where the child is confident to interact with others and express themselves. The role of the educator does not solely lie in teaching but also protecting the child in the absence of their parents. The educator should promote the childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing both at school and home. As an example an early childhood educator may notice that children are not interested in the book corner yet all the children enjoy story time and also enjoy looking through the books afterwards, however they will not look at the books in the designated area. With further observation and interaction with the children, it is discovered the children have a fear of the photo of a clown that is hanging above the book corner. Good communication skills cannot be ignored in providing an environment where the child feels able to express their fears openly. Listening, observing and interacting are a key role in enhancing good communication skills (Robinson, 2007). It is essential that the educator observes the children playing before participating in the play themselves. This helps the teacher understand the strengths and weaknesses of the children. It also helps the teacher avoid imposing adult ideas in the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play. Observation is a key aspect in developing good communication skills. It is through observation that theShow MoreRelatedEffective Communication in Early Childhood Education Essay1601 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEffective communication creates a learning environment where students can learn according to their individual needs in a safe and accommodating environment. Think about your early childhood education (or your childÃ¢â¬â¢s early education), was it flexible to suit individual learning experiences or were children required to conform to the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s methods of teaching? If you answered the latter, do you think the former would improve the quality of education? PedagoguesÃ¢â¬â¢ in all divisions of education shouldRead MoreEffective Communication in the Early Childhood Education Environment1517 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyour early childhood education (or your childÃ¢â¬â¢s early education), was it flexible to suit individual learning experiences or were children required to conform to the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s methods of teaching? If you answered the latter, do you think the former would improve the quality of education? The initial years of education are crucial to learning, development and growth, during these first years childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences shape their learning methods and they are able to learn rapidly, for this, early childhoodRead MoreEffective Communication Skills in Early Childhood Educators1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesessential skill for early childhood educators is effective communication. Communication skills can be both non-verbal and verbal. At birth non-verbally communication occurs and as verbal communication skills are acquired oral comprehension is possible. Parent to child communication occurs throughout life, but the importance of parent child communication in early childhood is the most profound. Effective communications in early childhood educators are identified by communication between student toRead MoreImportance of Effectve Communication for Early Childhood Educators1948 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCommunication: the essential life skill. Effective communication, as defined by Courtney (2009) Ã¢â¬Å"is a two-way process: sending the right message that is also being correctly received and understood by the other person/s. For communication to be effective, it is important to understand how the people you are interacting with may interpret your messageÃ¢â¬ . Early childhood educators are required to have effective communication skills as they need to communicate on a daily basis with their studentsRead MoreGood Communication Skills are Essential for Early Childhood Education1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGood communication skills form a critical element of early childhood education. Communication consists of two main styles: Verbal and non-verbal. These styles of communication form the foundation of effective teaching and learning within the early childhood forum. A good early childhood educator will enhance learning and development with an extensive knowledge of both the verbal and non-verbal elements of communication . An early childhood educator will understand what constitutes good communicationRead MoreCommunication: A Fundamental Part of the Early Childhood Teachers Role1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThis essay will discuss communication as being a fundamental part of the early childhood teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s role. Educators will communicate with many people during the course of their day. Developing positive relationships through open communication is a strategy that will benefit teachers, parents and most importantly, their students. Teachers must establish limits and expectations for students, not only in the classroom, but within individual lessons. Behaviour management is an essential skill that willRead MoreEssay on Skills for an Effective Communication1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAs an early childhood educator being able to communicate effectively is very important; without the ability to do so would make it very difficult to successfully teach children and build working relationships with pare nts and staff. Communicating is the ability to connect with others by exchanging ideas and feelings both verbally and non-verbally. Verbal communication can consist of spoken conversations (face to face or phone calls) or written messages (letters, emails newsletters). Non-verbalRead MoreTe Whariki1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhariki: Early Childhood Curriculum in which we follow as a framework for teaching in New Zealand. This report is going to cover the three broad age groups Te Whariki is based upon. It will explain the principles and strands of Te Whariki and the impact it has on a developing child. It will describe the purpose of Te Whariki and discuss ways it is used by early childhood education services throughout New Zealand. It will describe Te WharikiÃ¢â¬â¢s support for bi-culturalism throughout the early childhoodRead MoreThe Importance Of A Safe And Healthy Learning Environment1623 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEarly childhood has been on a high due to new research that has pr oved its effect on education of a child. The goals of Early Childhood programs are to provide programs to children and their parents that support the children in learning, daily routine practice, health needs including wellness, and to strengthen the gap between home and school. All of these goals are beneficial to the student as an individual learner. If a child is healthy and well, then they will be more likely to succeed insideRead MoreThe Effects Of Early Childhood Intervention On Children959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Early childhood intervention is a program that serves children from birth to age eight helping develop childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intellectual, social, emotional, language, and physical development and learning (Kostelnik,2). All educational programs that serve children ages three to eight years are recommended to promote an environment that families are comfortable in, involve parents and give them good esteem in the decision making of their children, assure
The introduction of mobile money service is taking place in isolation but in parallel with the advent and expansion of other financial electronic payments services. One of these is E-Zwich, an electronic platform that enables the loading and spending of electronic cash and also allows the settlement of inter-bank claims in addition to online transactions. Others are being made available over the Internet and through SMS-text messages. We will write a custom essay sample on Money Transfer in Ghana Case Study or any similar topic only for you Order Now The government regards these services as banking. They are strictly regulated and licensed by the Central Bank- Bank of Ghana under its branchless banking policy. Both MTN and ZAIN SIM cards are enabled to utilize the service but each new subscriber needs to register for the service at before it is activated. Upon activation, the user is provided with a secure electronic Ã¢â¬Å"walletÃ¢â¬ where funds can be disbursed or uploaded. The users can either exchange electronic money for physical cash (cash out) at shops, partner banks and accredited agents or make use of it in making purchases or transfers. Enabling a Cash Flow to Rural Areas In general, the most popular mobile money service is money transfer. The trend is for users in urban areas to transfer funds to recipients in rural areas. Traditionally in Ghana, city dwellers often send money to members of their extended family living in rural areas. Other typical services include the purchase of mobile phone airtime, goods and services through electronic transfer of money from userÃ¢â¬â¢s wallet to the merchantÃ¢â¬â¢s account. Commenting on money transfer via mobile phones, Carl NiikoiAshie, an mcommerce (mobile commerce) specialist at Zain who works on ZAP, said: Ã¢â¬Å"The customers can Ã¢â¬Ëcash inÃ¢â¬â¢ by loading money onto their ZAP wallet, then send the money to someone else on their phone in a simple process. The person receiving the money can Ã¢â¬Ëcash outÃ¢â¬â¢ by going to any of our outlets and exchanging the evalue for physical cash. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re seeing tremendous growth in the service across the country, with more cash-in done in the major cities while cash-outs are seen predominantly in the smaller towns. Ã¢â¬ Ashie sees a lot of evidence that his product is reaching GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s unbanked. Ã¢â¬Å"Users do not need to have a bank account to use the service. Currently, there are a lot of monetary transactions that take place outside the confines of the banks and it will take a product like ZAP to fill the void while providing a secure, convenient and trustworthy channel of transaction,Ã¢â¬ said Ashie. Ã¢â¬Å"Some customers have also requested products that will allow them to use their ZAP wallets for savings and hence enjoy interest on their savings, just as pertains in the traditional bank setting. Ã¢â¬ Today, consumers have a variety of ways to send and receive funds or money transfers. Although using cash to send a money transfer is the most popular method for most people, more and more people want additional options: to send and/or receive funds on the internet, over the phone, and now, on their mobile phones. Mobile money transfer is simply another way to send money. It is a transfer of money to a receiver in which the funds are deposited into a mobile or Ã¢â¬Å"virtualÃ¢â¬ wallet. As the number of mobile phone subscribers in Ghana increases, so does the market for mobile money services. The majority of Ghanaians lack any formal bank account. mobile money could change the shape of financial transactions in the country. An estimated 80 percent of Ghanaians are Ã¢â¬Å"unbankedÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â meaning they conduct their transactions outside the banking sector with no access to financial services. Products like Ã¢â¬Å"mobile money,Ã¢â¬ that enable safe and secure money transfers without the use of a bank account, could have a major impact on this unserved segment of the population. Mobile money gives anyone with a mobile phone the ability to transfer money, make cash payments and conduct other financial transactions over the phone. Mobile money is a relatively new phenomenon in Ghana. It was first introduced by the telecom company MTN some years ago. MTN Mobile Money operates in partnership with nine banks. Currently, more than 2 million Ghanaians are registered as active users. MTN expects this number to grow as a result of the resources they have committed to educating subscribers about switching from the traditional mode of cash payments to electronic payments. Earlier this year, Zain became the second mobile operator to provide mobile money services through the introduction of ZAP, working with three banks. The coverage and accessibility that mobile services provide is of increasing interest to the financial services sector. Countries are considering mobile technology to reduce the cost of delivering financial services to clients beyond the reach of traditional financial services. ECONOMIC BENEFITS Mobile money transfer has some socio-economic benefits in Ghana, some these are Firstly Improved Financial Access, consider a situation whereby a given business has to carry out a common payment operation, such as bill payment or funds transfer, and that operation demands transportation with all inconveniences attached to it. If the same transportation cost were paid to a service that would effect the same payment on behalf of the company over the mobile phone instead, this more convenient method brings about saving time and energy for other activities, in so doing increasing productivity by performing two tasks instead of one at the end of the day. It appears, therefore, that using your mobile phone to make payments represents to a very large extent convenience taken to another level. By exploiting the extensive reach of mobile networks, the mobile industry has the opportunity to complement and extend remittance channels, make transferring money significantly more convenient and also bring many people into the formal banking system. With more than 15,000,000 mobile phone subscribers in Ghana, the potential market for these new services is significant. Mobile money presents certain advantages for Ghanaians without access to banks. Penetration of mobile services across the world is increasing rapidly. In 1990 there were just over 11m mobile phone users worldwide. Today, over 3 billion consumers own mobile phones. At the same time, the possibility to technically integrate mobile and financial services is becoming increasingly apparent. A recent survey conducted by Edgar Dunn Company and the GSM Association (GSMA) predicts that, given an improved regulatory environment, in 2012 7% of the subscriber base in developed countries and 4% in developing countries will initiate at least one cross-border remittance. This equates to just over 248 million consumers in 2012 using mobile money transfer services. Financial access for the poor is still an issue in many developing countries. There are currently approximately only 0. 5 million bank branches globally with only 1. 4 million ATMÃ¢â¬â¢s compared to over 3 billion mobile customers worldwide. The mobile device has the potential to extend access to financial services for the banked, but also for the under-served and unbanked parts of the population. This improved, financial access can be achieved by exploiting the extensive reach of mobile networks. Traditional remittance channels can be complemented and extended with mobile money transfer services. Thus making mobile money transfers significantly more convenient, bringing many remittances from informal channels into the formal system. Secondly it reduces the transaction cost of money transfers. Bank transfers and specialist remittance companies can be prohibitively expensive for small denomination transfers, limiting the ability of individual workers to distribute funds to a larger number of people and penalizing those sending small amounts. Retail premises and staff costs increase overheads, leading to high commissions, especially for remittances below ghc100. It drastically cuts down the cost of providing service to customers. A study carried out proved that there is a substantial cut in customer care cost. This results from the fact that mobile money transfer eliminates the need for costly call centers and frees up customer service help desk. In addition real-time information is provided to customers and employees. Using a mobile platform such as SMS fro simple task as payment reminders and funds transfer can reduce the burden on IT and personal resources. This has also been found to reduce cost and errors associated with paper-base operations. Significant reduction in operational costs means additional revenues can be invested in other areas of the business. Mobile technology can lower the cost of remittances as it removes the need for physical points of presence and ensures a timely and secure method of transaction. This concept of Ã¢â¬Ëmobile moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ is extremely attractive to low income users in particular Mobile money transfer services can make remittances more affordable. Mobile technology lowers the cost of remittances as it removes the need for physical points of presence by banks and ensures a timely and secure method of transaction. This concept of Ã¢â¬Ëmobile moneyÃ¢â¬â¢ is extremely attractive to low income users in particular. It reduces the transaction costs of financial services for the poor, especially those in rural areas where financial services seldom exist. Mobile money saves the cost of travel and time spent visiting the nearest town to access financial services. As noted in AudienceScapes research, mobile money provides people with a way to transfer money safely and keep (or even increase) their savings. From the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective, mobile banking is relatively easy to use, and this is another advantage compared to traditional means of banking as well as electronic banking, given the fact that text messaging has become a common application of mobile phones. Thirdly mobile money transfers drive growth and development. Mobile money has the potential to create jobs directly through hiring in the mobile phone companies, partner banks and the more than 4,000 merchants involved in GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s mobile money system. Key partners in the provision of mobile money services include commercial banks, mobile phone operatorÃ¢â¬â¢s shops, distributor shops and accredited agents. Jobs may be created indirectly as mobile money contributes to growth in GhanaÃ¢â¬â¢s business and trade. If deployed successfully, mobile money could help individuals harness funds outside the banking system and channel them into the formal financial sector, thus making it easier to gather funds for investments. Not surprisingly, the general manager of Mobile Money-MTN, Bruno Akpaka, sees many benefits for Ghana as it continues adopting this service. Akpaka believes mobile money will Ã¢â¬Å"help trade activities within the country and foster strong business partnerships. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"The creation of wide merchant footprints in places where traditional banks cannot go also contributes to bringing people into this new model of financial transactions,Ã¢â¬ said Akpaka. Ã¢â¬Å"MTN Mobile Money is bridging this existing huge gap between the unbanked and the financial sector. Ã¢â¬ Mobile-financial convergence creates socio-economic benefits. It is widely accepted, that increased access to mobile telephony in developing countries brings considerable benefits to the economies of the respective countries. It is estimated that an extra 10 mobile phones per 100 people in a typical developing country lead to an extra 0. 89 Ã¢â¬â 1. 210 percentage points of growth in GDP per person. In addition, remittances are an important engine for growth and development in developing countries. The World Bank estimates that reducing remittance commission charges by 2-5% could increase the flow of formal remittances by 50-70%, boosting local economies. Reducing the cost of sending each individual remittance would encourage the delivery of lower value remittances, at smaller values than todayÃ¢â¬â¢s average transfer of ghc200. Financial regulators have the opportunity to use the development of mobilefinancial convergence to achieve their aims: ? ? ? ? New services offered to consumers, i. e. mobile money transfer services (innovation) Cheaper prices through more efficient use of the mobile infrastructure (competition) Across all consumer groups (banked, under-banked, unbanked) Transition remittances from informal to formal remittance channels (more visibility of money flows) Both the mobile and the financial industry benefit from this opportunity to cooperate in new ways providing innovative services to an increased customer base. The challenges facing the market. Access Access to the facilities to receive money is often limited, particularly for the poorest people in more rural areas where the banking sector is under represented and a largely cash-based economy exists. There are currently approximately only 0. 5 million bank branches globally with only 1. 4 million ATMÃ¢â¬â¢s compared to almost 2 billion mobile customers worldwide. Those who would benefit the most are therefore the least likely to benefit from remittances from migrant workers, locked out of their market through their social, economic and geographical position. Cost Bank transfers and specialist remittance companies are prohibitively expensive for small denomination transfers, limiting the ability of individual workers to distribute funds to a larger number of people and penalising the poor who can only afford to send small amounts. Retail premises and staff costs increase overheads, leading to a high fixed commission cost per remittance with industry revenues estimated at an average 15% per transaction, increasing to over 25% for remittances below ghc100. Handset operability There are a large number of different mobile phone devices and it is a big challenge for banks to offer mobile banking solution on any type of device. Some of these devices support Java ME and others support SIM Application Toolkit, a WAP browser, or only SMS. Initial interoperability issues however have been localized, with countries like Ghana using portals like R-World to enable the limitations of low end java based phones, while focus on areas such as South Africa have defaulted to the USSD as a basis of communication achievable with any phone. The desire for interoperability is largely dependent on the banks themselves, where installed applications (Java based or native) provide better security, are easier to use and allow development of more complex capabilities similar to those of internet banking while SMS can provide the basics but becomes difficult to operate with more complex transactions. There is a myth that there is a challenge of interoperability between mobile banking applications due to perceived lack of common technology standards for mobile banking. In practice it is too early in the service lifecycle for interoperability to be addressed within an individual country, as very few countries have more than one mobile banking service provider. In practice, banking interfaces are well defined and money movements between banks follow the IS0-8583 standard. As mobile banking matures, money movements between service providers will naturally adopt the same standards as in the banking world. Security Security of financial transactions, being executed from some remote location and transmission of financial information over the air, are the most complicated challenges that need to be addressed jointly by mobile application developers, wireless network service providers and the banksÃ¢â¬â¢ IT departments. The following aspects need to be addressed to offer a secure infrastructure for financial transaction over wireless network: 1. Physical part of the hand-held device. If the bank is offering smart-card based security, the physical security of the device is more important. 2. Security of any thick-client application running on the device. In case the device is stolen, the hacker should require at least an ID/Password to access the application. 3. Authentication of the device with service provider before initiating a transaction. This would ensure that unauthorized devices are not connected to perform financial transactions. 4. User ID / Password authenticationof bankÃ¢â¬â¢s customer. 5. Encryptionof the data being transmitted over the air. 6. Encryption of the data that will be stored in device for later / off-line analysis by the customer. One-time password(OTPs) are the latest tool used by financial and banking service providers in the fight againstcyber fraud . Instead of relying on traditional memorized passwords, OTPs are requested by consumers each time they want to perform transactions using the online or mobile banking interface. When the request is received the password is sent to the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s phone via SMS. The password is expired once it has been used or once its scheduled life-cycle has expired. Because of the concerns made explicit above, it is extremely important that SMS gateway providers can provide a decent quality of service for banks and financial institutions in regards to SMS services. Therefore, the provision of service level agreements (SLAs) is a requirement for this industry; it is necessary to give the bank customer delivery guarantees of all messages, as well as measurements on he speed of delivery, throughput, etc. SLAs give the service parameters in which a messaging solution is guaranteed to perform. Scalability Reliability Another challenge for the CIOs and CTOs of the banks is to scale-up the mobile banking infrastructure to handle exponential growth of the customer base. With mobile banking, the customer may be sitting in any part of the world (true anytime, anywhere banking) and hence banks need to ensure that the systems are up and running in a true 24 x 7 fash ion. As customers will find mobile banking more and more useful, their expectations from the solution will increase. Banks unable to meet the performance and reliability expectations may lose customer confidence. There are systems such as Mobile Transaction Platform which allow quick and secure mobile enabling of various banking services. Recently in India there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of Mobile Banking applications, with leading banks adopting Mobile Transaction Platform and the Central Bank publishing guidelines for mobile banking operations. Application distribution Due to the nature of the connectivity between bank and its customers, it would be impractical to expect customers to regularly visit banks or connect to a web site for regular upgrade of their mobile banking application. It will be expected that the mobile application itself check the upgrades and updates and download necessary patches (so called Ã¢â¬Å"Over The AirÃ¢â¬ updates). However, there could be many issues to implement this approach such as upgrade / synchronization of other dependent components. Conclusion. For customers and businesses in the country, it is a unique platform to bring convenience in financial transactions to customers, an area which before this period had been beyond our domain and reach for those of us in Ghana and most of Africa. For the customer, its time and cost saving elements cannot be over emphasized and the earlier we adopt electronic ways of financial transactions, the better it will be for a whole society that would see a transformation, resulting from the ability to cut down on time lost accessing basic services like funds transfer amongst businesses and individuals. How to cite Money Transfer in Ghana Case Study, Free Case study samples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
In fact, the War in general essentially served as an ignition to the division of the sections. Even further dividing the sections, the Protective Tariff of 1814 put a 25% tax on all imported goods. This means that a roll of cloth from Britain that originally sold for $5 would now cost $6. 25. This greatly helped the North British factories often sold goods cheaper than the factories in New England did in order to sell more. Due to the tariff, the North now had the best price and farmers in the west and south were forced to buy from New England factories.To help out the south, the government would spend some of their refits from the tariffs on transportation improvements in the south and west. The south and west, however, was angered by the tariff. The transportation improve-meets, they argued, did not help them significantly. Overall, they felt the north was benefiting from the tariff at their expense. We will write a custom essay sample on Sectionalism in the early-mid or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Sectionalism was such a widespread and realized problem that three sectional representatives one for each section emerged. Henry Clay spoke for the west. Although he was a sectional leader, Clay has been called one Of the most nationalistic leaders in Americas history.Clay had always tried to improve national unity, but unfortunately, many of his ideas never went into effect. John C. Calhoun was the sectional representative for the south. He was an opinionated man, and believed the states should have more power than the federal government. Calhoun also strongly opposed the tariffs. The northern delegate was Daniel Webster. Webster, unlike Calhoun, believed that there should be a stronger federal government, and also supported tariffs. Even the presidential elections were linked to sectionalism. After John QuinceAdams narrowly won the heated election of 1824, he and Andrew Jackson ran against each other in the election of 1828. John Quince Adams was a Federalist who liked to be considered authority rather than a common person. Andrew Jackson was quite the opposite. A republican (now called a democrat), one of the key elements in Jacksons campaign was showing that he was one of the people and spoke for everybody, not just people with money. Due to this, many voters from New England (north) voted for John Quince Adams, while nearly everybody from the south and west voted forAndrew Jackson. In the end, Jackson easily won the election. The same year Jackson was elected, a new tariffs issued. This tariff was one of the highest tariffs in American History. The south called it the Tariff of Abominations because they hated it so much. Solely helping the north and devastating the south and west, this new tariff passed in 1 828 widened the gap that separated the north from the west and south. Southern sectional leader John Calhoun wanted to nullify the tariff. He said that states should have the right to nullify a law they thought was unconstitutional.Northern representative Daniel Webster attacked this idea, saying how if states could nullify whatever they pleased, there would be a lack of organization and no reason for a federal government. Eventually, Webster wins this argument. In a political dinner, Calhoun found out that he did not have support from president Andrew Jackson, and resigned from the argument. Still infuriated about the steep tariff, North Carolina threatened to secede from the Union. Jackson compromised that he would reduce the tariff, but also make sure North Carolina remained a member of the United States by sing the Army. This lack of national unity had unfortunate effects on the nation. People often referred to themselves by their section rather than country. There was a distinct difference in lifestyles the south was more agricultural while the north was more industrial. The string of events, starting with the War of 1812 and worsening with tariffs, put a hamper on national unity. Although the United States was independent, they were divided among themselves. Can a nation call itself independent when its population only wants to support its section, not the nation as a whole?
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Strategic Human Resources Free Online Research Papers The need of an hour is that human resources is all about maintaining a positive and productive work environment, best practices helps to make sure that employees feel good about the company they work for. There is a growing recognition today that the strategic importance of HR is crucial to corporate success. In yesteryears was merely an administrative and supporting function of the organisation. Today it is the lynchpin of competitive advantage. Top organisations today are talking about Ã¢â¬Å"people before strategyÃ¢â¬ , underscoring Peter DuckerÃ¢â¬â¢s long-held contention that Ã¢â¬Å"people are a resource, not a costÃ¢â¬ . HR today has moved beyond merely an administrative to a strategic role. HR managers are increasingly making their case for a seat on the board as they strive for the HR function to be recognized for the value it adds to the bottom line. The internal customers ought to be given the priority and how to romance them like the way you romance your external customers. The paper entails new HR trends and practices adopted by the various organizations focusing on the factor of employee exhilaration. The study is an attempt in invigorating the need of Ã¢â¬Å"Employee FocusÃ¢â¬ and its impact on performance of the employee as well as the organization. The functions like Manpower Planning, Performance Management, Training and the role of Performance appraisals in the field of strategic HR are being laid emphasized on. Hence it is an endeavour in revealing the mounting significance of such facets of HR. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: The expression Human Resource Management (HRM) is a relative recent title for all aspects of managing people in an organisation. It represents a broad based understanding of the problems of people and their management in view of the development of behavioural science knowledge. A formal beginning of HRM functions in India was made in 1929, when Royal Commission of Labour was set up by the Government of India. Two years later the Commission submitted its report recommending the appointment of Labour officers to look after the employment and dismissal of workers as well as their working conditions. The scope of the function of Labour officers was widened during the Second World War, when such facilities as housing medical and recreational activities were added to existing responsibilities. In the process the labour officer got designated as Welfare Officer (WO),. The enactment of Industrial dispute act 1946 and factories at, 1947 further added the management of leaves, wages, bonus and retirement in the scope of the function of W.O. Growth in the business, competition and increasing size during sixties and seventies led to the need of attracting and retaining talented people. Hence formulating policies on Human Resource Planning, recruitment and selection, training and development, performance and potential appraisal, internal ability and compensation management etc. also become a part of W.O. who now became the personnel manager. With the increasing recognition of the importance of human resources and their contribution to the survival of the organisations, personnel function has now been called as Human Resource Management Function. Some of this transitions have been the increasing the cost of labour, periodic stoppage of work, government legislation, changes in production and distribution methodologies, information technology and strategic use of employees contribution (Saiyadin 1992). Today the HRM function can be seen as the amalgam, of organisational behaviour, personnel management, industrial relations an d labour legislation. Increasing organisational size and its complexity, transitional from traditional to professional management, changing social and cultural norms globalization of industry and availability of information technology are constantly changing the profile of HRM functions HE has to play a more dynamic .Today HRM manager cannot survive in the security of past. He has to play a more dynamic role in not only performing the maintenance function, but should think of more creative ways to satisfy human aspirations to provide the competitive edge, to organisations on a sustainable basis. Human Resources Management by Mirza S Saiyadain The people in the organisation, the human resources, are perhaps the most important aspect of any enterprise. The age of informational technology has popularized the word human capital. Earlier we were talking human resources and equating people along with the raw materials, financial resources and physical resources as an input for the enterprise. Now-a-days each and every process has its own management methods and personnel for managing that process. The basic principle remains the same as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling to achieve the goal by using the human, financial and material resources. Increasingly the firms are considering the adoption of new work practices such as problem solving teams, enhanced communication with workers, employment security, flexibility in job assignments, training workers for multiple jobs, and greater reliance on motivational tools. Organisations are increasingly looking at human resources as a unique asset that can provide sustained competitive advantage. The changes in the business environment with increasing globalization, changing demographics of the workforce, increased focus on profitability through growth, technological changes, intellectual capital and never ending changes that organisations are undergone have led to increased importance of managing human resources.(Devanna, Fombrum and Tichy,1981;Wright, 1998).Youndt and Snell (1996) find that firms employing HR practices according to the stated strategy are regarded to have better perceptual performance. The human resource management that aims to improve the productive contribution of individuals while simultaneously attempting to attain other societal and individual employee objectives has undergone drastic change with the passing of years. We all know that HRM is concerned with the people keeping the fact in mind that HRM helps in acquiring, developing, stimulating retaining the outstanding employees as it gives both effectiveness efficiency to the working of the organization, it has been started being used strategically is now termed as Strategic human resource management. Human Resource plays a significant, strategic role in supporting organizations. As such effective strategic human resource management approaches serve as the keystone of any severe change management planning. They must also be the heart of endeavours to transform the culture of organisations, so that they develop into less hierarchal, practice oriented, intact formal groups, and inwardly focused and more flat, outcome oriented, integrated and externally focused. The aim of SHRM is to make sure that the culture, approach and structure of the organisation and the excellence, dedication and motivation of its employees add entirely to the attainment of business objectives. It is unification of SHRM strategies with organisation strategies. The corporate strategies and HR strategies are developed simultaneously. They are coherent and comprehensive. There is emphasis on developing HR skills and capitalising on the competencies. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic HRM aims to gain competitive advantage through managing human resources that are valuable, and costly to imitate. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s new Strategic HRM emphasise on the concept Ã¢â¬Å"empowermentÃ¢â¬ pervasive in organisations. The concept of empowerment is open to many different practices and the significance of this concept is utilized in many different functions of organisations policies like management and employee development programs, appraisal and reward policy changes, and employee recognitions, training forming teams and teamwork, attempts to create a new climate of employee relationships. In todays flattened, downsized high-performing organizations, highly trained committed employees not machines are often the firms competitive key. Perhaps the most drastic change in HRs role today is its growing involvement in developing implementing the companys strategy. Strategies increasingly depend on strengthening organizational competitiveness on building committed work teams, these put HR in a central role. In the fast changing, globally competitive quality oriented industrial environment, its often the firms employees Ã¢â¬â its human resources Ã¢â¬â who provide the competitive key. And so now it is a demand of the time to involve HR in the earlier stages of development implementing the firms strategic plan, rather than to let HR react to it. That means now the role of HR is not just to implement the things out but also to plan out in such a manner that the employees can be strategically used to get edge over the competitors, keeping in mind the fact that this is the only resource (HUMANS), which cannot be duplicated by the competitors. The Strategic Human Resource Management Process includes: ? Manpower planning and determining internal mobility. ? Sustaining and retaining employees and ensuring productivity by investing in various HR practices in competitive environment. ? Evaluate employee performance, correct deviations with precautionary measures with future development. ? Reviewing and revising strategic plan for sustaining organisation competence and performance. Strategic Manpower Planning Involves ? Constancy, to employ or replace key workforce executives with minimal loss. ? Flexibility, ability to handle troubles encountered within the enterprise. ? Straightforwardness, harmonizing the perfect line of relationship among the employees. ? Clarity, feature of having specific objectives for all the levels or units in the organisation. Managerial functions includes planning, it involves formulating policies for future development of the enterprise, program to choose adequate number of persons who can work efficiently and accomplish the business objectives, provide training to the workers in the enterprise, integration and maintenance of work force. Organizing, it has to provide a clear layout about the inter-relationship between persons, jobs and physical factor and every worker should have proper understanding of their job. Direction involves motivation, which can be either positive or negative for the enterprise. It is necessary to motivate the workers about the nature of their job. Instructions should be clear, neatly explained and easy to understand. An efficient Manpower planning is established by significantly emphasizing on Internal Mobility to promote the existing employee and exploit their experience in bring high outputs for the organisation. A reduced employee turnover has a remarkable positive impact on the organisation. It brings satisfaction to the employees, maintain competitiveness and protect financial investments. As reported in the study, Internal Mobility by Taleo Research, 92 percent of companies turn to the existing employee base to fill an open job position. The majority of survey respondents (more than 70 large and global corporations) report internally filling 40 percent or more of open positions annually. According to the Taleo Research Internal Mobility Report a closed stress is needed on the factors like ? Improving Employee satisfaction ? Retention of employees ? Lower Costs and Faster Fills ? Transformed outlook from Goals to Process Design One of the most visible shifts in the workplace in recent years has been the rapid vanishing of the prototypical devoted employee who would work 30 to 40 years for the same company and then retire with a gold watch and pension. Many personnel these days hold positions at several companies during their career and may feel no particular loyalty to remain at a single firm for a great tenure. Best Practice Approach to HRM in supporting competitive advantage by sustaining and retaining employees are: By Pfeffer and Veiga (1999) Employment Security Selective Hiring Self Managed Teams and Decentralization Comparatively high compensation contingent on organisational performance Extensive Training Reduction of Status Difference Reduced turnover and retention of employees have prominent potential benefits like cost reduction, increase in skilled and experienced staff, employee commitment and satisfaction, and above all productivity, which in turn extensively demands the process of: ? Analyzing who are your most occupied and productive employees. ? Segmenting a strategy for enrichment versus skills improvement. ? Utilizing the accurate actions that envisage outcomes of engagement. ? Maturing strengths based focus on development and performance management. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT: The Performance Management and Information section presents guidance and support on a range of management issues and coordinates performance management activities including the over all improvement and development of employees. Performance management is a process on performance measurement approaches, such as the balanced scorecard. While the balanced scorecard offers a framework for the collection of strategic information, performance management ensures that results are used to influence the selection of planned actions and to foster the renewal of dynamic, competitive strategy. Unlike most tools and techniques, performance management is an unremitting, enterprise-wide process, rather than a one-time, isolated event. Six Performance Management imperatives are Compliance Management, Profitability Management, Cost Management, Performance Improvement, and Business Innovation Performance management is a set of functions that evaluate and report the behavior of employees and the effectiveness of the job and a set of various sub functions, such as gathering information, maintaining and examining logs, determining task performance under normal and pressurized conditions, how, each employees working towards their own goals and purpose aligning with organisational perspective. The level of performance increases if certain kind of benefits are offered to the employees, which generates a feeling among the employees that Ã¢â¬Å"I am CaredÃ¢â¬ . Some of them are: Defined Benefit Plans and Pensions, Retirement Planning, Health Care Systems, Insurance Plans, Profit Sharing Plans, Social Security, College Loans, Vision Plans, Employee Medical Health Insurance, Major Medical Health Insurance, Dental Plans, Flexible Spending Accounts, Employee Assistance Program, Accidental, Disability Insurance, and Cafeteria Plans. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The human resource function that probably has the greatest effect on development is Performance appraisal. A well implemented and executed performance appraisal system drives development. When employees collect apparent feedback on their performance, when rewards and recognitions are attached to performance, when expectations are stated clear in behavioral terms, or goal related terms, the employees constant inclination is on Ã¢â¬Å" performing-betterÃ¢â¬ . The performance appraisal system can be planned to sustain the approach by providing objective measures of skill accomplishment. It can also be used to classify and increase the skills of employees with potential. Every employee must be assessed at least once a year. There are six types of performance appraisals that are used with employees depending on various circumstances: annual, conditional, extended, interim, probationary, and special. The performance appraisal forms include: Rating form: includes the listing of dimensions for the position, the ratings, supervisor recommendations, employee comments, and a place for appropriate signatures. Narrative form: is to be completed and submitted along with the rating form. Each rating must be supported by appropriate comments. Goals may be listed on the form for each dimension if appropriate. Dimensions and Standards/Criteria form: is used for listing the selected dimensions, the specific criteria, and standards for performance. By HENRICO COUNTY RULES AND REGULATIONS, Section 13 A properly designed should relate company and/ or group goals to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s tasks and goals for the review period. The performance is broadly categorized into quality, quantity, timeliness and cost effectiveness, focused on outputs and organisational development. THE TYPES OF APPRAISALS Self Appraisal: A method in which employee evaluates his own performance and discusses with his manager. It provides the employee with the opportunity to reflect on his own performance and reasons behind it. 3600 Feedback: 360 degree feedback is a method and a tool that provides each employee the opportunity to receive performance feedback from his or her supervisor and four to eight peers, reporting staff members, coworkers and customers. Most 360 degree feedback tools are also responded to by each individual in a self assessment. Results-Focused Approaches Creamer and Janosik (in press) note that there are both advantages and disadvantages to results-based performance appraisal approaches. On the positive side, they produce short and long-term results in the context of original performance and organizational objectives, are generally perceived as fair, tend to generate high levels of commitment to the organization, and they encourage a high level of participation and are thus defensible. On the negative side, they can be overly results oriented especially in educational organizations, and they may be inflexible. Management by Objectives, and Accountabilities and Measures (Grote, 1996). MBO emphasizes participation by all organization members. Grote identifies the following core elements in MBO: ? Formation of trusting and open communication throughout the organization ? Mutual problem solving and negotiations in the establishment of objectives ? Creation of win-win relationships ? Organizational rewards and punishments based on job-related performance and achievement ? Minimal uses of political games, forces, and fear ? Development of a positive, proactive, and challenging organizational climate Supervisors need to ensure that appraisal processes are congruent with objectives and goals. An MBO rating form needs to provide space to list staff member objectives in order of importance, as well as space for the evaluator to describe staff member performance using a mutually agreed upon scale. Categories of performance can include: distinguished performance, competent performance, provisional performance, and inadequate performance. Accountabilities and Measures approaches involve the supervisor and staff member agreeing on accountability and performance factors and including them in the job description. Performance is then forecast for each factor to enable quantifiable measures for each factor. An Accountabilities and Measures form can be created, with performance factor categories. BEHAVIOUR BASED APPROACHES: Behavioural Observation Scale: Involves a process of identifying the key tasks for a job. It evaluates according to how frequently the employees exhibit the required behaviour for excellent performance. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale: In this approach, broad categories of practice are identified, ideally through collaborations between supervisors and staff. Specific job behaviors are then linked to the categories. Measures of staff member behavior are rated on a scale in relation to specific behavior items, such as understands department functions. Performance appraisal process is incomplete without the feedback given to the employee about his appraisal and his performance. Effective feedback describes the behavior rather than evaluates. The employee performance appraisal form is reviewed with the self-appraisal that the individual created assessing her own performance. The manager and employee talk honestly about how well she performed over the past twelve months: Strengths, weaknesses, successes and areas needing improvement. The performance management process, ends and begins anew with the performance review meeting. At the beginning of the meeting, the individuals past years performance is reviewed and the success of the development plan is evaluated. At the end of the meeting, the appraiser and the individual set a date to create the plan for next years goals, objectives, and development. TRAINING: A Strategic HRM Function After a successful Performance appraisal A Training Need assessment is required, this is the systematic method of determining if a training need exists and if it does, what training is required to fill the gap between the standard and the actual performance of the employee. Training needs analysis is Systematic method of determining performance discrepancies, and causes of performance discrepancies Reasons to conduct training needs analysis ? Identify the deficiencies ? Determine whether employees lack KSAs (Key Skill Areas) ? Benchmark for evaluation of training ? Makes sure training is provided to the right people ? Increases the motivation of training Organisations are increasingly spending more money annually on training with the belief that it will give them competitive edge in the local and global market. Training as an organisational intervention may be defined as a well thought of set of activities aimed to facilitate learning of knowledge, attitude and skills, among its people in the organisation to improve their current job performance and contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. Some Training Methodologies are Training Methodologies Anonymous card Panel Discussion Demonstration Skill Practice Dyadic Discussion or Exchange Problem-Solving Activity Game Questionnaire Group Enquiry Role Play Contracting Physical Continuum Creative Activity Presentation Checklist Synergy Activity Closing Circle Lecture Brainstorming Observation Case Study Project Fishbowl Trio Discussion or Exchange Full Group Discussion Writing Activity Experimental Activity Self Assessment and Self Evaluation Feedback Activity Small Group Discussion Story Whip Inter-group Discussion/ Exchange Peer Consultation Interviewing Peer Teaching Index Card Match Simulation Information Search Read and Discuss Group Guided Teaching Read and Teach Group Ice Breaker Mental Imagery Reference Source, Silberman, M and Whiteling,V. (1992). Twenty Acting, Training Programs.San Diego California, U.S.A: Pfieffer Company Apart from training methodologies, the functions like Training Need Analysis, Training Design, Training Implementation, and Training Evaluation are the key determinants in measuring the effectiveness of training, aiming to maximize productivity, and betterment of relationships in workplace, which not only increases organisational commitment but also improves individual job performances. Advantages of a Strategic Approach to HR: ? Smooth the progress of development of expert workforce through focus on type of people and skills required. ? Facilitates cost-effective management of employment, particularly in service industries where labor is generally greatest cost. ? Facilitates planning and assessment of environmental uncertainty, and adaptation of organization to external forces. ? Successful SHRM efforts begin with recognition of strategic requirements. ? Employee participation is serious to linking strategy and HR practices. ? Strategic HR facilitates methodical and logical and analytical approach. ? Corporate HR departments can have impact on organizations efforts to launch strategic initiatives. Conclusion: Ideally HR top management work together to devise the companys on the whole business strategy and policies; that strategy then provides the framework within which HR activities such as Training Appraising must be expertised. Once practiced honestly, it results out in the employee competencies performance that in turn help the company implement its strategies recognize its goals. While HR strategies must be developed to support the achievement of the organisations objectives, it is a two-way process. HR strategies can themselves be critical inputs in determining the strategic initiatives for the organisation. In order to be successful the employees should be developed in such a manner that they can be the competitive advantage, for this the human resource management must be an equal partner in both the formulation the implementation of the corporate competitive strategies. REFERENCE: ? Human Resources Management by Mirza S Saiyadain ? International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices, by Dennis R. ? Briscoe, Randall S. Schuler 2004 Business Economics ? gao.gov/new.items/d02373sp.pdf ? www.123eng.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=37025 32k ? Strategic Human Resource Management by Randall. S Schuler and Susan E. Jackson ? workinfo.com/free/Downloads/176.html, dlsu.edu.ph/research/centers/cberd/pdf/business/vol7/vol7_no4.pdf, ? Training: A strategic. HRM function. By Divina M. Edralin ? Strategic Human Resource Management by Charles J. Fombrun, Noel M. Tichy, Mary Anne Devanna Ã¢â¬â 1984 ? www.taleo.com/research/articles/talent/clarifying-the-purpose-internal- mobility-program. ? E-mail News Nurturing, Sustaining and Retaining Engaged Employees ? Strategic Human Resource Management by Olive Lundy, Alan Cowling 1996 ? co.henrico.va.us/hr/regs/rr13.pdf ? referenceforbusiness.com/small/Di-Eq/Employee-Performance-Appraisals.html ? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Performance_appraisal http://filebox.vt.edu/users/dgc2/staffinghandbook/perfappraisal.htm ? 12manage.com Research Papers on Strategic Human ResourcesThe Project Managment Office SystemBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalPETSTEL analysis of IndiaOpen Architechture a white paperAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaTwilight of the UAWInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductDefinition of Export Quotas
Monday, March 2, 2020
Who Is Todd Spiewak 8 Must-Know Facts About Jim ParsonsÃ¢â¬â¢ Partner SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Who is Todd Spiewak? To the public, he's known as Jim Parsons' boyfriend. The couple has been together since at least 2003. We know a lot about Todd's beau, who plays the lovable, eccentric genius Dr. Sheldon Cooper on The Big Bang Theory. Like his television persona, Jim hails from Texas. He had an extensive background in theater before getting his big break playing Sheldon. On the other hand, Todd Alan Spiewak has managed to remain a mystery, despite being linked to one of Hollywood's most prominent actors. I couldn't even confirm his date of birth, which has been reported as January 19th, 1977. However, I did some digging and was able to learn quite a bit about this mystery man. Let's get to know Mr. Spiewak, who is an accomplished fellow in his own right. He's Educated Todd graduated from Boston University in 1999. That's rather impressive considering Boston University only accepts only about a third of its applicants and is among the top 50 National Universities in America according to US News. Furthermore, he received a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Graphic Design, a major which requires both technical and artistic skills. He Has a Good Job He's employed as an Art Director. You may be wondering what an art director does- I know I was. An art director is responsible for the visual style and images in product packaging, magazines, newspapers, and movie and television productions. I would be terrible at that job. Some of Todd SpiewakÃ¢â¬â¢s clients include American Express, Barnes Noble, HP, KitchenAid, and The New York Times. Todd Spiewak is an artistic fellow. He Works With Jim Jim and Todd started a production company together called ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s Wonderful Productions. In 2015, they hired former Paramount Insurge development and production executive Eric Norsoph to be head of development and production. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s hope that Jim and Todd can be as successful together in business as theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been in romance. He Loves Dogs Jim's character, Sheldon Cooper, is a fan of the felines, but Jim and Todd are dog lovers. The couple lives in Los Angeles with their two dogs, Otis and Rufus. Here are Otis and Rufus wearing ties: They don't look like the best guard dogs, but they're kinda adorable. His Internet Presence Is Limited Even though dating a celebrity gives Todd fame and a platform, he has chosen to mostly stay out of the limelight. You can't find much information about him online. He's not posting on social media. He's not sounding off on any issues; he's basically an anti-Kardashian. So Todd Spiewak remains an enigma to the general public. I assume he's content with allowing his boyfriend to be the focal point. Good luck finding online info on Todd. Jim Gave Him a Shout-Out at the Emmys In his 2013 acceptance speech for winning Best Actor in a Comedy Series, Jim started thanking a bunch of people. Eventually he said thanks Ã¢â¬Å"to [his] favorite person on the planet, Todd Spiewak.Ã¢â¬ See for yourself. Jim's speech starts at around the 2:00 mark. Todd must have felt pretty special that night. I want somebody to tell me that IÃ¢â¬â¢m her favorite person on the planet in an acceptance speech at the Emmys. Sad face. Todd and Jim Are Not Engaged Despite rumors and reports to the contrary, Todd and Jim don't have plans to wed. In 2014, The National Enquirer, perhaps not the most reliable source, reported that they were in fact engaged. Then Jim posted this epic response on Instagram to clear up any confusion and let everyone know that they they're happy, but neither has put a ring on it: Also, on an Ellen appearance in 2014, Ellen DeGeneres asked Jim if he and Todd are going to get married. Ellen was pressuring poor Jim to get hitched and a flustered Jim said that he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Å"been enthusiastic enough about it and [he] feel[s] like a loser for the cause.Ã¢â¬ Awww. And Todd was watching. Todd and Jim Made Their First Public Appearance in 2013 At the 9th Annual Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) Respect Awards at the Beverly Hills Hotel, Todd and Jim made their very first public appearance when they were given the Inspiration Award. ToddÃ¢â¬â¢s parents even flew in from Philadelphia to attend. In his acceptance speech, Jim said this: IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never considered myself an activist. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never considered my relationship with Todd to be an act of activism. Rather simply, itÃ¢â¬â¢s an act of love, coffee in the morning, going to work, washing the clothes, taking the dogs [out]- a regular life, boring love. After Jim finished his speech, Todd lovingly said, Ã¢â¬Å"Well, as always, Jim didnÃ¢â¬â¢t leave much for me to say.Ã¢â¬ They donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be married to act like a married couple. Are Jim and Todd the Gay Brangelina? In 2015, US Weekly named Jim and Todd one of HollywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s gay power couples. Other Ã¢â¬Å"gay power couplesÃ¢â¬ included Ellen Degeneres and Portia de Rossi, Jesse Tyler Ferguson and Justin Mikita, Lance Bass and Michael Turchin, and Neil Patrick Harris and David Burtka. IÃ¢â¬â¢m pretty confident that Jim and Todd were more honored to receive GLSENÃ¢â¬â¢s Inspiration Award, but being part of a power couple sounds fun.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Energy Expenditure and Lab Report Guide - Essay Example In this case, the kilocalorie percentage was 26.3 percent from carbohydrate, and 73.7 percent from fat. The total energy expenditure from carbohydrate equaled 14.71 kilocalories multiplied by the 26.3 percent of the total kilocalories from carbohydrate, in the end equaling 3.87 kilocalories from cholesterol alone. The total energy expenditure from fat equaled 14.71 kilocalories multiplied by the 26.3 percent kilocalories solely from fat; in the end 10.84 kilocalories were from fat. The 10-min oxygen consumption, while exercising for our subject, was equal to 25.39 VO2 L/m. The average RER during our subjects exercise was .8952. The formula that was needed to calculate respiratory exercise ratio during exercise was the average Carbon dioxide production (VCO2) during exercise divided by the average oxygen consumption (VO2). When the RER sums up to .8952 the caloric equivalent to this was 4.924 kilocalories per liquid oxygen. Gross energy expenditure during exercise is calculated by taking 25.39-oxygen consumption multiplied by 4.924 caloric equivalents equaling a total of 125.02 kilocalories. The net energy expenditure of our subject that was 125.02 equals Gross energy expenditure plus the resting energy expenditure equals 139.73. To calculate the total resting energy expenditure derived from carbohydrate and fat you take the RER and find the percentage kilocalorie for both of them. The percentage kilocalorie that derived from carbohydrate was 67.5. The percentage kilocalorie that came from fat was 32.5. The energy expenditure from carbohydrates equaled to 139.73 kilocalories multiplied by 67.5 percent equaling a total of 74.07 kilocalories deriving from carbohydrates. The energy expenditure from fat equals 139.73 kilocalories multiplied by 32.5 percent equaling a total of 45.41 kilocalories from fat. This sort of testing can be applied